Behind bars

Young black people in England and Wales are 9 times more likely to be locked up than young white people.1

The perils of birth

Both infant and maternal mortality are skewed by race.

In Canada, infant mortality rates were more than twice as high for the indigenous population than for the non-indigenous population.15

Race determines how likely people are to die during, or just after, pregnancy: in Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander maternal mortality rate is 3 times than for other women.16

In the US, the maternal mortality rate for black women is more than 3 times than for white women.17


UK: unemployment rate for black, mixed race and Pakistani people is more than twice that of white people and more than 3 times for Bangladeshi people.18

US: unemployment rate of indigenous and black people is at least twice that of white people.19

New Zealand/Aotearoa: unemployment rate for Māori and Pacific peoples is 3 times that of white people.20

In the UK, the wage gap for black workers gets bigger as they get more qualifications.21 White people earn nearly 5 times more than black people in South Africa.22

See a printable version of The Facts spread as it appeared in the magazine.

  1. Ministry of Justice, September 2017,
  2. Ministry of Justice and National Statistics, November 2017,
  3. Office for National Statistics, December 2012,
  4. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, June 2016,
  5. United States Census Bureau, July 2016,
  6. Government of Canada, Office of the Correctional Investigator, November 2013,
  7. Statistics Canada, 2016,
  8. Australian Bureau of Statistics, June 2017,
  9. Australian Bureau of Statistics, June 2017,
  10. Department of Corrections, September 2017,
  11. Stats NZ, 2013,
  12. Office For National Statistics, October 2015,
  13. Australian Government, 2017,
  14. National Center for Health Statistics, 2016,
  15. Statistics Canada, November 2017,
  16. Australian Government, December 2017,
  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
  18. House of Commons Library Briefing Paper, November 2017,
  19. United States Department of Labor, October 2017,
  20. Stats NZ, October 2013,
  21. TUC analysis of the ONS Labour Force Survey figures, February 2016,
  22. Statistics South Africa, January 2017,